Food preservation Definition, Importance, & Methods

todayJune 30, 2020



For any type of freezer, freezing capacity is defined as the ratio of the quantity of the product that can be loaded into the freezer to the holding time of the product in that particular freezer. The first parameter, the amount of food product loaded into the freezer, is affected by both the dimensions of the product and the mechanical constraints of the freezer. The denominator has an important role in freezing systems and is based on the calculation of the amount of heat removed from the product per hour, which varies depending on the type of product frozen . Several works have attempted to calculate real freezing time, as in one presented by Nagaoka et al., . Further empirical equations can be found in literature in detail (Chen, 1985; Levy, 1979; Succar and Hakayawa, 1983). To protect the taste, color, and nutritional value of food products.

What are causes of food spoilage?

Various factors cause food spoilage, making items unsuitable for consumption. Light, oxygen, heat, humidity, temperature and spoilage bacteria can all affect both safety and quality of perishable foods. When subject to these factors, foods will gradually deteriorate.

The refrigerant consumption is in the range of 1.2-kg refrigerant per kg of the product. Typical food products used in this system are, fish fillets, seafood, fruits, berries . There are a considerable number of designs and arrangements for air blast freezers, primarily grouped in two categories depending on the mode of process, as either inline or batch. Continuous freezers are the most suitable systems for mass production of packaged products with similar freezing times, in which the product is carried through on trucks or on conveyors.

Classification of foods

The lower the product temperature is, the slower the speed of reaction is leading to loss of quality. The temperatures of supply chains in freezing applications from the factory to the retail cabinet should be carefully monitored. The temperature regime covering the freezing process, the cold-store temperatures (£ -18 °C), distribution temperatures (£ -15 °C), and retail display (£ -12 °C) are given as legal standards . The fluidized bed freezer, a fairly recent modified type of air-blast freezer for particular product types, consists of a bed with a perforated bottom through which cold air is blown vertically upwards . The system relies on forced cold air from beneath the conveyor belt, causing the products to suspend or float in the cold air stream .

At a lower temperature, when food products become partially frozen, breakage in cells occurs which damages the product. Most tropical fruits and vegetables are sensitive to chilling injury.

Food preservation using chemical methods

A food rotation system uses the first in first out method , which ensures that the first item purchased is the first item consumed. Issues of food spoilage do not necessarily have to do with the quality of the food, but more so with the safety of consuming said food. However, there are cases where food has been proven to contain toxic ingredients.

  • A woman holding her nose at spoiled food in the pot in front of the refrigerator.March is National Nutrition Month.
  • However, it is important to highlight that all preliminary steps before freezing food products are quite similar whether on a large or small scale.
  • These mechanisms are not necessarily mutually exclusive since spoilage caused by one mechanism can stimulate another.
  • In acidic drinks like sodas and fruit juices, sodium benzoate is an antimicrobial preservative and flavoring agent that can inhibit the growth of bacteria, mold and yeast.
  • With these in mind, it is easy to understand why packaging foods correctly is important to its viability.
  • In this method, the moisture content is lowered to the point where the activities of these microorganisms are inhibited .

The term ‘rancidification’ is used to denominate lipids oxidation through which unsaturated fats undergo reaction with oxygen . The consequences in food items are color alteration, off-flavor, and toxic substances formation . Rancidification can be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides and exposure to light increases the reaction rate. After this reaction, carbonyl compounds, responsible for rancid taste of foods, are produced .

Implications for food security and sustainability

The use of high Food Spoilage: Causes, Food Preservation, Dis/Advantages and Examples velocity is very effective for freezing unpacked foods, especially when they can be completely surrounded by flowing air, as in the case of fluidized bed freezers. The freezing process mainly consists of thermodynamic and kinetic factors, which can dominate each other at a particular stage in the freezing process . Major thermal events are accompanied by reduction in heat content of the material during the freezing process as is shown in Figure 1. The material to be frozen first cools down to the temperature at which nucleation starts. Before ice can form, a nucleus, or a seed, is required upon which the crystal can grow; the process of producing this seed is defined as nucleation.

This can make the difficult to eat, as some people may not like the taste of the changing food. Bananas are good examples of this—some people dislike “ripe” bananas whose peels have begun to turn black. The use of preservatives in food products is studied and regulated by the FDA. Shape and size of the container are also important factors in freezing products. Serving size may vary depending on the type of product and selection should be based on the amount of food determined for one meal.

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